Physics and Cosmology are in crisis; The rescue requires reviewing the concept of SpaceTime

Dark matter

Rubber membrane model for Dark Matter Halo

shape of the universe

Our Universe is best modeled as an expanding (hyper)globe

The two great theories of physics are in conflict with each other due to a wrong model of the universe.

By perceiving the universe as an expanding (hyper)globe, concepts like the wave-particle duality can be easily and coherently assembled, ultimately building a beautiful puzzle of nature and the universe.”

—Mr Waugh

INDORE, MADHYA PRADESH, INDIA, January 27, 2023 / — What is SpaceTime?

SpaceTime is not a 4-dimensional continuum; the math says otherwise!

Einstein’s view of Space-Time as a 4-dimensional continuum leads to a ‘Block Universe’ in which there is no distinction between past, present and future, and all three exist simultaneously! This contradicts a staggering number of observations in all of science and has been challenged by Mr. Subhajit Waugh. You can find a brief summary of the research aimed at non-specialist audiences. #here . The original preprint document is entitled Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity are fully compatible and have a common origin: the expanding (hyper)globe universe. #link1 #link2

The Minkowski Spacetime Equation (MSTE) that explains all special relativity (including time dilation, length contraction, and relative simultaneity) is not a statement for the 4D spacetime continuum. That error occurred due to our incomplete knowledge about the true nature of imaginary numbers. An imaginary sign is hidden inside the MSTE, which distinguishes the spatial dimensions from the temporal dimension and converts the metric (+,+,+,-) instead of (+,+,+,+). Unlike the real numbers, the imaginary number (i) cannot be used as an independent axis. An independent axis means an additional dimension.

The imaginary number is required only for the inaccessible dimension and does not create an additional dimension. The imaginary number is only required by a trapped creature.

MSTE has been confirmed to be true in countless experiments, but it is actually a mathematical statement for a 3D hypersheet, moving with velocity c in the fourth dimension in an embedded 4D hyperspace. Thus, MSTE perfectly describes a small section of an expanding (hyper)globe universe, where c is the rate of radial increase of our universe. Using this globe model, and taking the age of our universe to be 13.8 billion years, the calculated value of the Hubble constant (71.002 km/s/Mpc) agrees very well with the accepted values ​​(69.8 km /s/Mpc and 74 km/s/Mpc measured by two separate methods). Since the crucial equation of space-time and Hubble’s law tell the same story, it should give us great confidence that we are on the right track to claim that our universe is an expanding (hyper)globe. Since our universe is expanding at a constant rate instead of accelerating (as is currently believed), we don’t need dark energy, since we don’t have to take acceleration into account.

MSTE shows that relativity is about being trapped inside the wall of the expanding (hyper) globe, but being free to move along the wall. The question is “What is this 3D hypersurface wall of the globe universe made of?”

It is made of (scalar) fields and particles, which are mere resonances/excitations in that field. That’s just the core statement of the astonishingly precise quantum field theory (QFT) that forms the basis of the Standard Model of particle physics. Thus, we glimpse the unity between relativity and Quantum Mechanics.

The radius of the universe is an impossible direction for us (which doesn’t even exist for trapped creatures like us).

The radial increase of the universe appears to us as the passage of time.

The globe shape of the universe creates two different frames of reference/viewpoints. The universe is perceived differently from each point of view, due to the interchange of roles between space and time. But it is precisely this, which allows the reconciliation between Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity, which are the two pillars of modern Physics. From the point of view of the center of the universe (globe), simultaneity is absolute (as required by the Sagnac effect) and there is absolute universal time (as required by Quantum Mechanics). This is because the absolute universal time since the Big Bang is simply a function of the radius of the universe. From our point of view (located on the surface of the globe), our concept of Space-Time is relative, locality is absolute, and the speed of light is the upper limit (and remains constant for each observer regardless of their speed). Those were Einstein’s unwavering beliefs, which were shattered by quantum entanglement experiments (which led to last year’s Nobel Prize in Physics). Since both relative and absolute times are possible, he solves the Problem of Time, which had stubbornly resisted the reconciliation of QM and GR. Which point of view will prevail is determined by the size scale.

GRAVITY AND DARK MATTER: The rubber sheet/membrane model is used to teach general relativity in schools and universities.

Instead of taking it as an analogy, we should take it literally. The wall of the globe universe behaves like a rubber membrane. The difference is that it is a 3D hypersheet instead of a 2D sheet. Massive objects like stars and planets are embedded like thin coins within this wall (when viewed from the 4th dimension), and stretches this wall along the 4th dimension. This stretching is seen by trapped creatures like us as a deformation of the 4D SpaceTime fabric itself, and gives rise to gravity as General Relativity (GR) insists. This stretching also produces the same gravitational time dilation (as Einstein predicted).

General relativity is still the best theory of gravity. However, today’s biggest cosmological challenges, such as dark matter, the black hole singularity (leading to the “loss of information” paradox), etc., are mere relics of our misunderstanding of General Relativity. Since the 3D hypersheet is a single continuous sheet, and since all nearby massive objects stretch this sheet in only one direction, the collective stretch is greatly amplified (see image).

The resulting enormous stretch bends light rays greatly (through gravitational lensing) and gives the false impression of enormous amounts of dark matter halo. The black hole singularity is just the inside view of a trapped creature. Right in the center of the naked singularity, time passes at the same rate as in deep space, far from any gravitational sources.

about Mr. Subhajit Waugh
Mr. Subhajit Waugh is currently working as a Science Officer. He obtained his MS in Physics from the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, in 2003, where he was the first of his batch. In 1996, he was awarded the prestigious NCERT National Talent Scholarship.

Subhajit Waugh
Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology
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